Amsterdam Research Institute for Legal Studies


Bonger Institute

The Bonger Institute's publications include articles in international peer- reviewed journals, book chapters and scientific reports.

[English publications and Dutch publications with English summaries are shown here.For a full overview of publications, please refer to the Dutch section of our website]

Recent publications

By tradition, the human trafficking discourse focuses on cross-border sex trafficking from impoverished countries to countries with a high standard of living. This article explores whether identified trafficking in the Netherlands corresponds to this. We introduce a model that identifies all possible trafficking situations, and with this, intends to prevent tunnel vision and identify blind spots. Subsequently, we analyze 768 trafficking cases identified by the Dutch Public Prosecution Service (2008-2012) and categorize each case according to our model: by form of exploitation and route of trafficking. The data show that (near-)domestic sex trafficking where victims are not pushed out of impoverished countries, but are recruited on native (or neighboring) soil, is the human trafficking situation most commonly identified.

Kragten-Heerdink, S.L.J., Dettmeijer-Vermeulen, C.E. & Korf, D.J. (forth.) More Than Just “Pushing and Pulling”: Conceptualizing Identified Human Trafficking in the Netherlands. Crime & Delinquency 00(0): 1-25.

[DOI: 10.1177/0011128717728503]

Aims: To evaluate the consequences of criminalising khat, with a focus on the changes in law enforcement and the use, availability, price and quality of khat in the Netherlands. Methods: Mixed methods, including law enforcement data, expert interviews, focus group interviews with members of the Somali community, and a survey among 168 current (last month) khat users. Findings: Soon after the law changed (early in 2013), and khat had become an illicit drug, much of the khat imported from Africa was confiscated at Schiphol International Airport and users found it more difficult to obtain fresh khat leaves. About two years after the ban had been implemented, the price of fresh khat at user lavel had increased tenfold on average, and much of it was of poorer quality (e.g. sold in dried or powdered form). Conclusion: Criminalisation of khat in the Netherlands had substantial consequences for the distribution chain (transcontinental import by air) and there was a lach of alternative transportation routes that could supply users with fresh khat. It is highly likely that the total number of Somali khat users in the Netherlands dropped, but that the proportion of dependent and poor, "problem users" increased.

Nabben, T. & Korf, D.J. (2017) Consequences of criminalisation: the Dutch khat market before and after the ban. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 24(4): 332-339.

[DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2017.1338669]


Korf, D.J., O'Gorman, A. & Werse, B. (2017) The European Society for Social Drug Research: a reflection on research trends over time. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 24(4): 321-323.

[DOI: 10.1080/09687637.2017.1346061]


In this report from the NPS-transnational team, eight experts give their view on the NPS market in the Netherlands.

Wouters, M. & Nabben, T. (2017) National Report on New Psychoactive Substances Expert Interviews in the Netherlands. NPS-transnational Project (HOME/2014/JDRU/AG/DRUG/7077).


This country report gives an overview of the NPS situation in terms of definitions, policy, legislation, market and prevention in the Netherlands.

Wouters, M. & Nabben, T. (2017) Country report on New Psychoactive Substances in the Netherlands. NPS-transnational Project (HOME/2014/JDRU/AG/DRUG/7077).


In Antenna 2016, trends in the Amsterdam nightlife and the related developments in substance use are described by means of a panel study among trendsetters and a survey among students in secondary vocational schools or colleges.
Tabacco, alcohol and cannabis are the substances most commonly used by vocational students, in addition to energy drinks. The use of ecstasy, cocaine, amphetamine and 4-FA is a lot less prevalent. For almost all substances holds that the older the vocational students are, the larger the group of current users.
Laughing gas is popular among varying groups of young people and young adults. In the case of the vocational students, there is hardly any difference between gender, age or ethnic background in laughing gas use.
Overall, it seems that substance use among the trendsetters is stabilizing in recent years, although with the arrival and the popularity of 4-FA and laughing gas, the drug palette has been further expanded.

Nabben, T., Luijk, S.J., Benschop, A. & Korf, D.J. (2017) Antenne 2016. Trends in alcohol, tabak en drugs bij jonge Amsterdammers. Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers.


Published by  Faculty of Law

Bonger Insituut

12 September 2017